هنر رنج کشیدن

نام کتاب: چگونه رنج بکشیم

نویسنده: کریستوفر همیلتون

مترجم: سما قرائی

ناشر: نشر هنوز

می‌گویند هر کتابی جمله‌ای درخشان است که گسترش یافته.  حال اگر بخواهم جمله‌ی درخشانِ کتابِ «چگونه رنج بکشیم» را انتخاب کنم -و به شما اطمینان می‌دهم که کار بسیار سختی‌ست- این جمله را برمی‌گزینم: «…جالب اینجاست که پذیرش ضعف، می‌تواند قوی‌مان کند.» (ص۹۹). کریستوفر همیلتون، استاد فلسفه‌ی اخلاق و نویسنده‌ی کتاب، تلاش داشته تا حولِ همین جمله سخن بگوید. او این کار را با زبانی بسیار هم‌دلانه و با آوردنِ مثال‌های فراوانی از فلسفه و تاریخ و علم و به‌ویژه ادبیات انجام داده و به نظر من بسیار موفق بوده است.

اساس کتاب بر ارائه‌ی راهکارهایی‌ست که «چگونه رنج بکشیم» یا به بیان بهتر، چگونه کمتر و آگاهانه‌تر رنج بکشیم. کتاب با آمیزه‌ای از آنچه فلسفه و ادبیات می‌تواند به ما بیاموزد، راه‌هایی را پیش‌پایمان قرار می‌دهد که تحملِ رنج‌ها آسان‌تر شود.  اولین نکته‌ی دانستنی این است که: «از رنج نمی‌توان اجتناب کرد؛ هیچ کاری از دستمان برنمی‌آید تا بتوانیم کاملا از آن‌ها فرار کنیم. ولی این حقیقت نه تنها فکری منفی و بدبینانه نیست، بلکه فوق العاده رهایی‌بخش است. چون امکانی را فراهم می‌کند تا چشم‌اندازی واقع‌گرایانه نسبت به خودمان پیدا کنیم و ببینین واقعا چه کاری از دست‌مان برمی‌آید تا رنج‌های زندگی را درک کنیم و در جهت درست مورد استفاده قرار دهیم.» (ص۱۳).

مقدمه‌ی کتاب دیدی کلی و بسیار کارا نسبت به مسائلِ مطرح‌شده در کتاب می‌دهد. کتابْ چهار بخشِ اصلی دارد. در بخشِ اول با عنوانِ «تزلزل؛ یا رنج در خانواده» به مشکلاتِ زندگی در خانواده پرداخته می‌شود. بخشِ دوم «نافهمی؛ یا رنج در عشق» پیچیدگی‌ها و دشواری‌های روابطِ عاطفی را بررسی می‌کند و راه‌های مواجهه با رنجِ حاصل از شکست‌های عشقی را شرح می‌دهد. در بخش سوم «آسیب‌پذیری؛ یا رنجِ جسمی» کتاب از راه‌های کنار آمدن با بیماری‌ها و کم‌کردنِ آسیب‌های روحیِ ناشی از ابتلا به بیماری سخن می‌گوید و در بخش چهارم «اضمحلال؛ یا رنج مرگ» از این واقعیت که ما از مرگ هراس داریم و چه باید بکنیم با این هراسمان، سخن به میان می‌آید.

همان‌طور که گفتم زبانِ به غایت هم‌دلانه‌ی نویسنده به جذابیت و همراهیِ خواننده با کتاب کمک می‌کند. نویسنده کسی نیست که بر تمامی این مشکلات و رنج‌ها فائق آمده باشد و حالا با نخوتی در بیان، از‌ خواننده بخواهد یک‌سری دستورالعمل‌ها را انجام دهد تا به قله‌ی موفقیت (که نویسنده پیش از ما و پیروزمندانه به آن رسیده) برسد: «چندی پیش بیمار شدم. بیماری حادی نبود. در اصل ضعیف و خسته شده بودم، اما تپش قلب نیز داشتم و چشمانم هم مشکل پیدا کرده بودند. پزشکم در بیمارستان آزمایش‌هایی از من گرفت، اما هیچ مشکل جدی یا اساسی‌ای کشف نکرد. با وجود این نشانه‌های بیماری روزبه‌روز بیشتر می‌شد: سرگیجه، خواب رفتن دست‌وپا و غیره. در همین دوره این اقبال را داشتم که چند ماهی به ایتالیا بروم. سبک زندگی مرا از زندگی روزمره‌ام بیرون کشید و چرخة بیماری را برهم زد. بلافاصله پی بردم که آنچه بیمارم کرده نگرانی‌ام در باب بیماری بوده است. البته ابتدا واقعاً بیمار شدم، ولی نگرانی از بیماری وجودم را تسخیر کرد و این اضطراب حالم را وخیم‌تر می‌کرد. اما مطمئنم که اگر می‌توانستم پندهای مونتنی را به کار ببندم، علائم بیماری‌ام مدت‌ها پیش از رفتن به ایتالیا از بین می‌رفتند.» (ص ۹۸).

همیلتون اشرافِ عمیقی بر ادبیات دارد و در خلالِ بحث‌ها جابجا، مثال‌های متعدد و مؤثری از داستان‌ها و آثار مختلف می‌آورد؛ مثال‌هایی از نویسندگانی چون پروست، تولسوتوی، کافکا، استاندال، شکسپیر، ریلکه و… این مثال‌ها علاوه بر اینکه کتاب را سرشار و خواندنی می‌کند، شور و شوقی را هم در خواننده به وجود می‌آورد برای رفتن به سراغِ دنیای ادبیات و خواندنِ شاهکارهای ادبیات از منظری که کتاب برای ما فراهم کرده. و این به نظر من این مهمترین کارکردِ ادبیات است: کاستن از رنجِ زیستن.

اجازه دهید یادداشت را با توصیه‌ی دیگری که کتاب برای بازشناخت و کاستن از رنج‌ها به ما پیشنهاد می‌کند تمام کنم:

«اما کافکا و وایس و زنو می‌توانند درس آموزنده‌ای به ما بدهند چون این افراد دردشان را در راه کار خلاقانه به کار بستند و در نتیجه این درد را تحمل‌پذیر ساختند. شاید فکر کنید که خوش به حال‌شان، ولی همه که نمی‌توانند دردشان را تبدیل به اثری خلاقه کنند. این حرف از یک جهت درست است: همة ما نمی‌توانیم نویسندة بزرگی مثل کافکا شویم و باید با این واقعیت کنار بیاییم. با این حال، اگر شما هم به همان شکلی که کافکا رنجیده بود رنجیده‌خاطرید، می‌توانید بنویسید. می‌توانید افکار و احساساتتان را به شکل خاطرات، یا نامه‌ای -که هیچ وقت لازم نیست بفرستید- به شخصی بنویسید که شما را رنجانده است. باورتان نمی‌شود با این کار چه‌قدر سودبخش است. اصلاً مسئله انتشار این اثر یا حتی درمیان گذاشتن محتوایش با دیگران نیست. شما در واقع دارید افکار و احساساتتان را بیرون می‌ریزید، خودتان را بیرون می‌ریزید و این فرایندی است که به شما امکانی می‌بخشد تا از خودتان و زندگی‌تان اندکی فاصله بگیرید قرار دادنِ تجربیات در شکل و قالبِ نوشتار باعث می‌شود مسائل ساختار پیدا کنند و آنها را بهتر یا تحمل‌پذیرتر می‌سازد. شما همچنین می‌توانید از جانب کسی که آزارتان داده به نامه‌تان پاسخ دهید و پاسخِ احتمالیِ فرد مذکور را تصور کنید. کافکا تمام تلاشش را کرد تا بفهمد مسائل از دیدگاه پدرش چه شکلی می‌شوند چون این کار نیز کمک می کرد تا تجربه‌اش در چشم‌اندازی عادلانه جایگاه و ساختار پیدا کند. شما هم می‌توانید از روی دست کافکا سرمشق بردارید.» (ص ۵۴).

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    शायद यह आपकी भी मदद करेगा
    इंडिया ऑस्ट्रेलिया का ताजा न्यूज़ – Telegraph
    [url=https://telegra.ph/%E0%A4%86%E0%A4%88%E0%A4%AA%E0%A4%8F%E0%A4%B2-%E0%A4%9F%E0%A4%AE-%E0%A4%AE%E0%A4%B2%E0%A4%95-02-22] कला शिक्षा का अर्थ – Telegraph[/url]

  17. I don’t know whether it’s just me or if perhaps everybody else
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  18. Gambling has long been a tabooed subject in many societies; in actuality, many people believe it
    to be a kind of gambling. However, a lot of people still enjoy the thrill and excitement that come together with gambling; therefore, the reason there are casinos all over the world.
    Gambling has even made its way into popular culture, with reality
    shows like”The Weakest Link” where people play slots.

    Quarantee (black and red ) is possibly the most recognized type of casino game, and probably the one with the highest
    degree of interest among gamblers. It is often compared to a
    cross between slots and poker, since it requires the player to place bets based on the cards that
    come from the quarante deck. Although the specific mechanics of
    how these bets are made is largely unknown, it’s
    usually thought that a standard deck of 52 cards is used in each game.

    In addition to the cards that come out of this quarante deck,
    the player should also opt for a hand of cards which will make up the winning combination.
    The most common types of bets are the win, place, show,
    and complete house.

    There are basically two types of bets in quarantine. First, the players can either
    bet on the total amount of the pot (or bet ); or they could bet on the total amount of cards that come from the quarante deck.
    If no cards come out during a quarante match, then the player must call, raise,
    or fold. There are usually three different betting bets in each game: win, cover, and
    half-pay.

    Traditionally, the traditional Italian card game, tarantella, was played
    at the St Regis Hotel. This specific variant of the game involved a tableau de quarante where all of the players would sit at specific places on the warranty
    row. In this sort of game, there were red and black rooms, together with the winning participant being the player who was able to finish their last five
    cards before the other players finished theirs.

    Today, there are literally hundreds of variations of the traditional French card game, et noir.
    In actuality, the most common variation is only a
    variation on the black and red rooms. In most versions, there are four suites; a
    black package, a red suite, and a blue suite. The
    players can win by laying down a total of twenty-one free
    cards, including one card from each of the four suites.
    Once all players have lost their cards, the dealer randomly chooses one card from each of
    the four suites and puts it in the center of this quarante table.

    Today, the term”quarante” means”of or relating to quarantining.” Traditionally, the game
    was referred to as”trente et noir” that meant playing cards with titles.

    It has also been known as”trente” and”ne monetaire” from the French
    speaking world. Today, it refers only to card games that contain playing cards with names.

    Traditionally, the match was played between two people seated across a small table; however,
    in America it is usually played in a bar or lounge.
    Each individual dealt three cards face down, one at a time to one
    another. If anybody got rid of one of those three cards, then they had
    to change places with the person who they had dealt the first card
    to. The person who dealt the last card, in turn, then had
    to eliminate the hand by passing another card to the person they handed it to.

    The”quaint” version of the game is available for those who
    want to play something a bit more simple. Though
    there are variations on how best to play the game,
    the basic rules remain the same. The object is still the same,
    to form the highest possible hand without having any cards left
    to spare. This can be achieved with ease, especially if you have already mastered the fundamentals of playing the game
    of blackjack, since the fundamental rules of this card
    game are very easy to learn and master. The basic concept of
    the game of”monte carlo” remains the same, since it is
    a simple game which can be played by almost anyone.

  19. Wasabi is a derivative or futures contract making it deviate greatly from the 2020 lowws the
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  20. It is the best time to make some plans for the longer term and it’s
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  21. Tui Na Chinese Herbal Treatment

    In Chinese, Tui Na is popularly known as
    the”Master of Heaven’s paintings”. Tui Na literally means “heavenly cloud”.
    The character,”Na” stands for”water”, so
    when translated it means”heavenly water”. This is also where the notion of the”Shiva Cloud” stems from.

    Tui Na is a branch of Chinese Esoteric Medical concept and
    as such is often applied along with acupuncture, fire, acupuncture,
    tai chi, and other eastern forms of internal medicine, and wu-si,
    or Oriental bodywork. Because Tui Na is an essential component of the course of
    Shiatsu, or the Japanese art of healing hands, it has been used to promote healing within the martial arts.
    In the Oriental tradition, Tui Na is thought to facilitate
    the proper circulation of Chi or the”energy” in and around the body.
    Tui Na is believed to increase circulation, stimulate the circulatory system, equilibrium Qi, and prevent
    stress and injury. Practitioners think that proper Chi flow across the body can assist with the healing
    of various disorders, such as allergies, asthma, constipation, diarrhea,
    allergies, fever, pain, PMS, palpitations, sleep disorders, and some kinds of cancer.
    Since Tui Na is thought to help the body’s natural recovery process, many practitioners
    believe that its use promotes self-healing.

    When Tui Na is used in conjunction with acupressure and other traditional
    Chinese medicines, it is thought to provide additional benefit.

    By way of example, Tui Na is advocating to treat asthma, in addition to headaches, PMS, arthritis, fibromyalgia, sinusitis,
    nervousness, insomnia, and even some kinds of cancer. Many Tui Na
    experts recommend the mixture of Acupuncture and Tui Na remedies for those
    who suffer from chronic musculoskeletal problems.
    In fact, many Acupuncture/Tui Na specialists recommend that their patients use Tui Na, together with
    Acupressure, for the best possible result.

    One reason that Tui Na is so helpful in the treatment of a
    huge variety of illnesses has to do with all the positive feedback that traditional Chinese medication gives them.
    For instance, Acupuncture and Tui Na is very complimentary to each other since both Chinese medicines and Tui Na help stimulate
    the flow of Chi throughout the body. Considering both Acupuncture and Tui
    Na are rooted in traditional Chinese medicine, there are numerous beliefs
    and theories that practitioners of Traditional Chinese Medicine can learn from one another.

    This is particularly true because lots of the health states we call ailments in the West today have their origins in Traditional Chinese Medicine.

    For instance, there are particular factors within the
    body that are connected to the different bodies which people have inside
    of them. If these factors are disturbed or influenced by some outside stimulus,
    illness can result. Acupuncture and Tui Na excite the flow of Chi and
    also permit the circulation of vital power to properly
    flow throughout your system. Tui Na practitioners use different methods and techniques like gentle pushing, holding,
    and tapping on certain pressure points on the body.

    This makes it possible for them to excite the
    flow of blood and nutrients throughout the body.

    While this occurs, the disease is prevented.

    Apart from the various illnesses which can be treated, Tui Na also has other
    positive effects on the individual. Some of the illnesses that Chinese medicine practitioners utilize Tui Na to treat include
    headache, muscle pain, arthritis, high blood pressure, colds, influenza, sinusitis, respiratory distress, PMS,
    skin disorders, varicose veins, joint and shoulder pain, psychological ailments, insomnia, and much more.
    In fact, Tui Na is commonly utilized to treat a number of conditions, and that’s the
    reason why it is a very popular form of Chinese medicine.
    To be able to gain benefit from Tui Na, an individual must
    begin by obtaining an accurate diagnosis. After a diagnosis is given, a suitable treatment can be prescribed to
    the person.

  22. It is reasonable to mention Sic Bo is really a highly popular casino game from Asia since you can theoretically
    win massive amounts of money with this popular video game (typically bet by people who are at
    the minority with regard to many who gamble the minimal quantity allowed from the casinos).
    It’s likewise reasonable to say that a lot of those
    players learn that this match in a bid to try and
    make a quick buck. Many older players are brought on by the simple fact which they are able to
    win big and they enjoy to try and increase their likelihood of successful major.
    Here is the way the Sic-Bo / Tai-Sai action usually occurs.

    The dealer typically starts away having twenty or
    ten or more championships, that are coated using a transparent cover.
    The dealer will subsequently put seven or eight championships into a red
    purse, that will be later passed around to the people.
    The intention of the game is for gamers to attempt to remove the most amount of
    dice from the plank while perhaps not letting
    some of the additional gamers remove any of these dice out
    of the board. When a player wins a jackpot, that player must
    replace each one of the dice they removed from your board.
    When a participant accomplishes a jackpot, they still must attend until
    it alters until they could attempt to remove some other pair of dice.

    The very first part of the betting treatment is relatively simple.

    The rules for gambling are fairly common. Players are encouraged to set stakes that fit
    the total casino’s entire bank-roll (not their individual bet sums ).
    Regardless of what the final bet sum is, all stakes have
    been performed in an identical way – throughout the traditional, multi-line betting process at which the
    man betting pays off one line of currency and receives
    a fitting field of money in return. In virtually no limit game such as for example
    for instance Sic-Bo, however, a player can also fold
    their bets until the final bettors have a possiblity
    to carry them.

    When a casino provides odds for specific games, chances are
    usually listed in Roman numerals. You’ll find a number of variations
    on the list of chances, even though. For instance, in the No Limit texas hold em game, a new player could receive two pairs, but about a few cards if the pot is small.
    From the No Limit Texas Holdem match, people can receive a single card two cards
    when their original wager has been a pair. Regardless
    of the type of chances, nevertheless, gamers ‘ are always instructed to place their bets based on this likelihood.
    This guarantees that at case that their very first bet wins,
    then they have the opportunity to choose up another bet at
    a better rate.

    Edge gambling is a popular way in most casino games.
    In an online casino game, an edge bettor will often use two varieties of stakes – just one for a single apparatus, and also you for two components.

    In an internet video casino, however, there aren’t any limits into the bets.
    Edge people may most likely bet many times on the same wager, some times doubling, or
    tripling the original bet level. For this reason, they’re a really
    good strategy whenever you have the chance to do so, and you’ll be able to become off with spending more winnings out than your house pays out.

    If it has to do with deciding on your finest bets, take into account the
    winning hand and also the odds for every. Both of these factors will be utilised to discover which bets
    would be the ideal. Generally in most court scenarios, if you’ve the opposite hand,
    you will have the very greatest chances of winning the pot;
    if you have the ideal hand, you stand a very good probability of winning the bud.
    If you possess a very high overall score, however, you’ve got
    much less of a prospect of profitable at the total score.

    This can be where many casino players wind up, since they do
    not need to reduce too much money whenever they are in the game.

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  24. Authorities have been behaving passively about regulating Bitcoin the reason a lot this 12 months.
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